Six things we want you to know about Unification of China

Written by Matt Pavlovich

bfiglogogreenLast Saturday we were exhibitors in the Tabletop Showcase at the Boston Festival of Indie Games. It was a terrific experience and we met so many great people, a special thank you to everyone who spent time at our booth. Among our highlights; we were able to demo our current game design, Unification of China for attendees and by the end of the event, we had a lot of visitors excited by the direction of the game (which is now in its later stages of development).

Many awesome visitors sat down and played a few turns of the game with us, and it often led to some great conversations about their favorite board games. More amazing visitors were as fascinated as we are by the history in this era of Ancient China (the time period and theme for the game) and of course we’re always thrilled when people approach us and talk game design, .

It was a busy time summer for us, as we spent it preparing for the event and playtesting a lot of games, including our own. We will be returning to our normal article publishing cycle next week with the next segment in our Pool Builders series, but we wanted to share six key things about this really exciting moment for us in gaming.

2-6 players, 90 minutes, ages 12+.

Unification of China is designed to support its entire range of player number without requiring any fiddly rules variations or creating virtual players. Smaller player counts might be associated with a relaxed and epic game, where each player can amass great influence in each region and project, while larger player counts might feel more frenetic and territorial, requiring players to specialize carefully. We enjoy playing it regardless of the number of players, and we hope you will too.

uocsummaryThe game takes place over 6 rounds that last around 15 minutes each, for a total of about 90 minutes. We recognize that there are a lot of great games out there, so we worked hard to create a game that gives a full Euro-style strategic experience without monopolizing your entire evening.

There are enough novel ideas and mechanics in Unification of China that the game might be a little tricky for our younger gamers to appreciate. That said, there are no adult themes or explicit content, and we consider the subject matter appropriate for all ages.


Mechanic Archetypes – Pool Builders

Written by Alex Harkey

poolbuildersOur latest topic is “Pool Builders”, a collection of related mechanics like Deck Builders, Dice Builders and Bag Builders that are worth exploring side-by-side as they tend to share similar strengths, weaknesses and approaches to game design.

The most visible difference between these categories is the components they use, so we’ll often use terms like tools, resources and objects to collectively refer to the various components that comprise a player’s deck, bag or dice pool.

In this article I’ll introduce many of the key traits we can find in games that are described as pool builders and in our following articles we’ll explore the key strengths and weaknesses of the group of mechanics. In our concluding segment we’ll finish up with our observations of dozens of pool builders, showcasing some of the most innovative and brilliant ideas we’ve seen in game design that incorporate these mechanics.

What are Pool Builders?

At a high level, our ongoing exploration of game mechanics has developed into its own rank-based taxonomy. If Dominion or Ascension were considered species, their genus would be Deck Builders and their family rank would be Pool Builders in a classification hierarchy. If we’re being complete accurate, “Pool Builders” would probably also go by a fun Latin phrase like stagnum aedificantes.

When we explored Worker Placement, we thought it was worthwhile to revisit exactly what the mechanic is, since games that simply use the term “workers” (Terra Mystica, Puerto Rico) and games in which you add or remove meeples (Carcassonne, Five Tribes) are often curiously grouped into the definition.


Mid-Game Structures – Player Strategy

Written by Alex Harkey

Earlier this year we launched our Mid-Game Structures series; a few perspectives of how games change their environments to keep the experience engaging. This article is part of our ongoing series titled Game Structures in which we continue to build on a foundation of game design concepts.

Building on Concepts: A Quick Review of Player Interaction

When we last left off, Matt looked at Player Interaction in games, which used a multi-category approach to help define the type and significance of interaction between players:

thedegreeofinteractionDegree of Interaction: This is an assessment of the degree of overlap or intensity players have with one another within the game environment. It creates spectrum ranging from No Interaction (which is akin to individual players quietly working on puzzles in opposite corners of a room) to Direction Interaction (which would be more like if the players needed to steal pieces from one another in order to finish their own puzzle).

Our topic today is Player Strategies and we’ll be pairing this axis with a second criteria to help us categorize how games influence the starting strategies of players. Let’s look at that second criteria:

What is a player’s time horizon to plan actions?

The next thing we want to examine is how short or long-term oriented player decisions tend to be in a given game, or what we call our Time Horizon. If you’re more comfortable with it, you can think of this as our comparison of Tactics vs Strategy; strategy being the large scale focus or objective(s) needed to achieve success, and tactics being the specific steps or tasks you need to perform to implement your strategy.

I’m deliberately going to gravitate away from using these terms, because we can’t really plot games using a Tactics vs Strategy scale; games can have a significant presence of each and they don’t necessarily come at the cost of one another. These terms are also very player-centric, while we we want to classify in relation to the game as a whole: how players respond to one another, deal with variance and foresee future needs. We’ll group these and several other factors together and categorize games based on their time horizon in which players plan decisions; a continuous theoretical spectrum.

Time Horizon

Time Horizon: How far in advance can you plan your approach?

In this spectrum, you can think of “short-term” as games in which typically make decisions on a turn-by-turn basis; perhaps players have relatively little information available between turns, or there is a tremendous need to be reactive to a rapidly changing board, other players or new information that becomes available on their turn.

Love LetterGames like Love Letter and Yahtzee have a short-term time horizon in which players can plan ahead. These games consist of drawing cards or rolling dice at the beginning of your turn, then basing your decisions off of the resulting outcome. Player’s simply can’t anticipate what their precise decisions might be four or five turns ahead, as the possibilities are too great to garner much benefit.

This isn’t to say either game lacks long-term decisions; You may plan to hold a certain card in Love Letter as long as possible and your choice of where to score in Yahtzee can be a strong contributing factor to success. But as a whole, these games are structured for a short-term, turn-by-turn basis of making decisions rather than stringing together multiple turns in a row into a more intricate plan.

On the other end of our spectrum, “long-term” describes games in which players will be rewarded for using a proactive approach to their turns. In this case, we aim to coordinate our turns or choices in a way to maximize our final outcome. These games also allow players to have the vast majority of the information we need to plan ahead before we ever get to our next turn, so you have the ability to mastermind that multi-step ladder to success.

Twilight StruggleGames like Concordia and Twilight Struggle reward player decisions on a long-term time horizon. In each game, a player has a hand of cards that they will play one-per-turn in some order. The surest path to success is to prioritize the relative order of cards played to achieve the greatest total outcome. Obviously, not as easy as I make it sound, but as a comparison, someone who is playing one card at a time without considering their next few turns can miss opportunities and beneficial combinations that the cards offer when played in a specific sequence.

Putting It All Together

We now have our two axis graph: Player Interaction (High vs Low) and Time Horizon (Short vs Long). Let’s take a moment and identify a few examples before we move forward.


We can see a few examples whose characteristics would line up somewhere in each quadrant of the graph. For instance, Chess (Quandrant I) rewards long-term planning the ability to anticipate many turns ahead in competitive environments. In addition, you are capturing the pieces of your opponent in a tightly constrained space, a fitting example of high player interaction.

Bohnanza (Quadrant II) also has high player interaction as the game drives negotiation and trading between players. Turns generally can’t be anticipated as players are constantly flipping over new cards and information, opponents are trying to make deals and you may be planting beans only to immediately pull them up as your objectives quickly change.

Yahtzee (Quadrant III) is a game of short-term planning; the outcome of your dice each roll strongly determine your course of action each turn. While you can play against competition, you have no opportunity to affect the approach your opponents use in the game other than to distract them with your incredibly good looks.

Dominion (Quadrant IV) is a prototypical example of a game with a long-term time horizon. There is a consequence to players who are not considering the synergy of the cards purchased between turns, as deck efficiency and composition are two driving factors of success. While players do have access to cards that can affect opponents, the vast majority of the game takes place independent from other players, so it is often quite low in terms of player interaction.

Mapping Player Strategy Categories

The quadrants we’ve created (unsurprisingly) have some common traits between the population of games within them. Our approach focuses on three broad strategic categories: “Initially Reactive“, “Continuously Reactive” and “Proactive“. Also included are a few game mechanic categories that are often concentrated (but not exclusive) to certain areas of our graph.


Strategy Category – Initially Reactive

Initially ReactiveGames that fall within the Initially Reactive area often give players different sets of initial conditions which can provide strong direction as to which paths players should or should not pursue.

These starting conditions can appear in the form of your opening destination tickets in Ticket to Ride, your lord card in Lords of Waterdeep or the country you begin the game with in Diplomacy. In these games players are initially rewarded for “doing what the game tells them to do” based on their unique situation and by incorporating a game-endorsed strategy. There is rarely a single “correct” strategy applicable to all players, but there may be an optimal way to begin the game from your position.

7 WondersThe replay value in these games often comes from tapping into a player’s creativity and the need to adapt to throw something together on the fly. While you can have an idea The intrinsic reward of games in this category like Terra Mystica and 7 Wonders is that each game begins with vastly different starting conditions and there is enjoyment in solving the puzzle of how to be successful in any of them.

Strategy Category – Continuously Reactive

Continuously ReactiveThe Continuously Reactive category consists of games where the set of initial conditions in the game matter less than the conditions that exist on each subsequent turn, due to a large degree of variance. Since so much can change between your last turn and your next turn, players are rewarded for maximizing the value on each of their turns, since a long-term strategy is often not feasible.

The setting for these games might be the constant inflow of new cards and information in Love Letter, the fluctuating stock-market of Speculation or the inability to anticipate your options in Five Tribes until it actually becomes your turn. What you do on your turn in Hanabi may be dictated based on a clue given by the previous player and you can’t foresee some of your decisions in Bohnanza because they can arise unexpectedly during someone else’s turn. All of these might be reasons why you need to be on your toes constantly and watching what other players are doing on their turns.

carcassonne2One of the common traits in this category is that these games are often very approachable for new players. The highly tactical nature of these games is beneficial to a new player who may not have the ins-and-outs of the game quite yet, as the first few turns of a game like Carcassonne can serve as a quick introduction to the sequence of ideas that are repeated throughout. Since a long-term strategy isn’t always feasible in this category, a new player who has experience with similar mechanisms can try to wing it and come out alright at the end.

Replay value in this category comes entirely from the variance and the idea that you’ll probably never going to see anything close to the same game play out twice. There are generally a lot of moving parts; perhaps randomness generated by cards or dice and additional variance caused by the reactions of other players to these variables. One benefit of all these factors is that it is quite difficult to become estranged from what other players are doing, as one player’s actions might completely shuffle the priorities of all the other players on their following turns.

Strategy Category – Proactive

ProactiveThe Proactive category consists of games where each player has the same set of initial conditions and the board is relatively constant throughout the game. Players are rewarded for having a consistent strategy that they execute throughout the game and there are a limited number of optimal approaches for any given board configuration.

In games like Dominion and Puerto Rico, you’re at a tremendous advantage by planning a strategy based on the initial set-up before the game even begins. To some extent, the success of your strategy may swing based on the actions of your opponents, but players who can quickly prioritize and consistently apply a strategy will have more success long-term than those who dabble in all areas of the game.

DominionA lot of the replay value in this category comes from these games being very structured and almost methodical in execution. These are many of the “Gamer’s Games” that should almost be renamed “Expert’s Games” because they reward the experience of a player who can execute an well-orchestrated big money deck in Dominion or a player who can spot an opportunity for a double build strategy during In The Year of the Dragon. Dedicated enthusiasts of these games will find a very strong replay value as they hold the knowledge of the various strategies and the experience to maneuver the hurdles that arise in their execution.

There is a bit of a correlation we can see in the games of this category; the less interactive a game is, the more long-term oriented a game often is. The player interaction of these games is frequently of the “indirect interaction” nature, so while you might consider the types and counts of cards your opponent is building in San Juan, their decisions are usually not deeply intrusive to your personal goals.

The Last Category – Multi-Player Solitaire

multiplayersolitaireI thought our the last category would be worth addressing even if it isn’t one of our strategy categories. This category of games is really the quintessential group to be called “multi-player solitaire”. Critics frequently use the term as a pejorative for “anything with less direct competition than I prefer in my games”, but that doesn’t really serve us well as a useful function for classifying games.

When we look at games in this quadrant, they have the characteristics of being very short-term oriented and low in player interaction. As a dramatic example, Bingo would end up in this quadrant as you really don’t do anything until a number is called and you can’t interfere with any of the other players during the game.

YahtzeeThese games often have a large social component; you can play Yahtzee or participate in traditional trivia games without having to be at odds with other players or even be concerned with their choices. As a trade-off, the lighter nature of competition appeals to our ability to socialize between turns and invest in one another rather than the game we are playing.


Game Design StructuresAs we’ve been graphing, developing and revising this categorization approach, we’ve continued to find fascinating observations beyond what I could cram into a single article. Sometime ago Matt and I each developed different category names and slightly different categorical descriptions for this whole idea, but I harmonized our thoughts last year and I present it to you in the format above.

Now we want to know what you think; do you see any trends in the games you enjoy or where would you graph the games you’re designing? Do you disagree with this approach entirely? Join us in the comments below.

This wraps our Mid-Game Structures series and we’ll be back with soon with our next series. Thank you for reading!

Power Grid

Game Design Analysis – Power Grid

Written by Matt Pavlovich

pgprecipiceToday we’re thrilled to dive deep into a game with endless utility, Power Grid. In our recent readership survey, it was by far the most requested game for a design analysis, so naturally we are happy to oblige.

As our reader Rob noticed way back in 2014, Power Grid is our favorite design reference point, an excellent example of so many concepts in game design. Focusing solely on Power Grid will help us tighten our coverage and really dig deep into this pinnacle of strategy game design.

Nevertheless, we’re convinced that nobody loves Power Grid quite as much as we do, and we’ve decided to commemorate this occasion by taking a deep dive into the game and treating it to the design analysis that it so richly deserves. Unlike most of our design analysis articles, which focus on the concepts we’ve described most recently, here we’ll pick the most salient concepts that apply to Power Grid from all of the various articles we’ve written.

Balance – Positional Balance

Power Grid is basically synonymous with positional balance, a concept that we described more than two years ago in our first article series. Positional balance refers to the in-game adjustments that a game’s mechanics enforce to prevent runaway leaders and enable players who fall a bit behind to catch up; in other words, positional balance ensures that an early lead represents a later advantage and not a path to sure victory.

Nearly every aspect of Power Grid is finely tuned in terms of positional balance. The diminishing returns of the payment schedule for powering an increasing number of cities ensures that the first player past the post of a certain number of powered cities is not automatically the winner–and it enforces an interesting choice when, later in the game, expending resources to power cities may actually be a net expense instead of a net positive.


March Guest Interview – Dominic Crapuchettes

Written by Alex Harkey

Wits & WagersToday we’re thrilled to be joined by Dominic Crapuchettes of North Star Games. Almost ten years ago, my introduction to Wits & Wagers was one of the key experiences that unlocked my own pursuit into the mystical world of modern board games. I’ve had the chance to learn a lot about Dominic over the last few weeks, but I’ll let him describe his own journey as a board game designer and publisher:

My family did not watch much TV.  We played board games instead.  I still have a copies of several games I designed when I was 11.  When I was 13, one of my games (Kabloogi) was banned from school because too many students were playing it during class.  My final project in high school was a business plan for the game company I dreamed of starting.


I became addicted to Magic: The Gathering in college, but after taking home $15k from the 1998 New York pro tour, I realized I was more passionate about creating games than playing them.  So I jumped ship as the captain of an Alaskan salmon fishing boat and started North Star Games.  I’m glad I did – our three most popular games (Wits & Wagers, Say Anything, and Evolution) have sold over 2 million copies combined.

North Star Game’s latest project, Evolution: Climate is fully funded on Kickstarter and currently knocking down stretch goals at it approaches the final days of the campaign. Dominic sat down with us to answer our questions about his latest design work, game development and his thoughts on trends in the industry:

Games Precipice: Welcome Dominic, thank you for joining us! For those of us who may not yet be familiar with it, what is Evolution and how did its ideas hatch into a game?

evolutionDominic: Evolution is a family of games that builds upon the ideas of a Russian biologist, Dmitry Knorre.  It has made a name for itself in the scientific community because of the vivid way it simulates an ecosystem.  An article about Evolution was recently published in the journal Nature, the world’s most prestigious scientific journal.  It was written by Stuart West, a professor of Evolutionary Biology at the University of Oxford, who is currently using Evolution in one of his classes.

Previous attempts at evolution-themed games have approached the subject by applying mechanics from one of two genres: area control wargames, or civilization games with tech trees.  Both of these frameworks don’t quite work for evolution.  The heart and soul of Evolution is an ever-changing ecosystem where players continually adapt in order to survive and thrive.


Mid-Game Structures – Player Interaction

Written by Matt Pavlovich

The next stop on our tour of mid-game structures involves player interaction. Of course, player interaction is not strictly limited to the middle part of a game–in some games, every single turn involves some measure of interaction with the other players. But we thought our series about the pivot points and decision crossroads was the perfect place to discuss interaction: the outcome of so many games can hinge on whether you choose to attack your opponent or leave him alone, trade or embargo, call or raise, claim the action that’s best for you or impede on what is best for him.

In the next two sections, I’ll propose a two-dimensional model of interaction that considers both how interactive a game is and how antagonistic it is.

First axis: degree of interaction

thedegreeofinteractionThe first axis of interaction describes the degree (or intensity) of the interaction that exists in the game. I’ll discuss this axis as if it encompasses three distinct categories, but like every other topic in game design, it really exists as more of a continuum.

This dimension spans from games that have literally no interaction with the other players to games where every action depends on someone else’s and in turn affects someone else’s. And like most continuums in game design, most games fall somewhere in the middle.

No interaction “You do your thing, I’ll do mine.”

nointeractionIn games with no interaction, a player can’t affect either the game state or the strategic options/available actions of the other players. Fans of games with extensive player interaction might derisively refer to a game as “multiplayer solitaire” if they perceive it as having too little interaction. But true multiplayer solitaire would literally confine each player to his own corner, doing his thing without paying any attention to what anyone else was doing.

It’s difficult to think of real examples of games with no interaction, so I’ll use a few nontraditional or incomplete examples to get the point across. Something close to a true no-interaction game is a crossword competition, a contest of skill with an objective scoring system that you can definitely win or lose, but where your success and strategy have no bearing on what anyone else is doing.